In Germany Romantic painting took on symbolic and allegorical overtones, as in the works of P.O. Privacy Policy  | [8] [2] In Italy, the most important Romantic sculptor was Lorenzo Bartolini. No better symptom of this view exists than the way the term "romantic" has come to stand as the antithesis of "realist." [4] [18] [8] [10] [2] I am an English Language Arts teacher who uses technology to increase my productivity, share resources with my colleagues and create engaging assignments for my students. Although in both Germany and England there was continued interest in the ancient classics, for the most part the Romantics allied themselves with the very periods of literature that the neoclassicists had dismissed, the Middle Ages and the Baroque, and they embraced the writer whom Voltaire had called a barbarian, Shakespeare. [5] Romantic art addressed its audiences with what was intended to be felt as the personal voice of the artist. Romanticism: Historical Context Historical forces clearly shaped the literature of the American romantic period. A significant Romantic theme became the contrast between artist and middle-class "Philistine." The Romantic opera in Germany culminated in the works of Richard Wagner, who combined and integrated such diverse strands of Romanticism as fervent nationalism; the cult of the hero; exotic sets and costumes; expressive music; and the display of virtuosity in orchestral and vocal settings. [2] [2] The ideals of the French Revolution influenced the Romantic movement in other ways. [13] [20] [2], Victor Hugo published as a poet in the 1820s before achieving success on the stage with Hernani --a historical drama in a quasi-Shakespearian style that had famously riotous performances on its first run in 1830. Historical Events: Louisiana Purchase, Monroe Doctrine, McCormick invents the reaper, Morse telegraph, Daguerre takes first photographs, California gold rush, Darwin writes Origin of Species, Civil War in the United States, Germany united under Bismarck, Edison invents electric light and phonograph, Roentgen discovers the x-ray, Spanish-American war. [22] In France, historical painting on idealized medieval and Renaissance themes is known as the style Troubadour, a term with no equivalent for other countries, though the same trends occurred there. [2] French Romantic poets of the 1830s to 1850s include Alfred de Musset, Gérard de Nerval, Alphonse de Lamartine and the flamboyant Théophile Gautier, whose prolific output in various forms continued until his death in 1872. [8] [2], Influenced heavily by Lord Byron, Lermontov sought to explore the Romantic emphasis on metaphysical discontent with society and self, while Tyutchev's poems often described scenes of nature or passions of love. Romantic opera in Germany began with the works of Carl Maria von Weber, while Romantic opera in Italy was developed by the composers Gaetano Donizetti, Vincenzo Bellini, and Gioachino Rossini. [23]. Discuss the political and theoretical foundations of Romanticism. [8] Edgar Allan Poe's tales of the macabre and his balladic poetry were more influential in France than at home, but the romantic American novel developed fully with the atmosphere and melodrama of Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter (1850). The huge popularity of German Romantic music led, "whether by imitation or by reaction", to an often nationalistically inspired vogue amongst Polish, Hungarian, Russian, Czech, and Scandinavian musicians, successful "perhaps more because of its extra-musical traits than for the actual value of musical works by its masters". I don't want a long essay about everything and its mother about what happen in the romantic era. [2], In music such works from after about 1850 are referred to by some writers as "Late Romantic" and by others as "Neoromantic" or "Postromantic", but other fields do not usually use these terms; in English literature and painting the convenient term "Victorian" avoids having to characterise the period further. [16], Although the term "Romanticism" when applied to music has come to imply the period roughly from 1800 until 1850, or else until around 1900, the contemporary application of "romantic" to music did not coincide with this modern interpretation. The Romantic Movement was first originated in Germany, quickly reached England, France, and afar, it spread in America roughly during 1820, some twenty years after William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge had transfigured English poetry by bringing out Lyrical Ballads. The most significant novelist in English during the peak Romantic period, other than Walter Scott, was Jane Austen, whose essentially conservative world-view had little in common with her Romantic contemporaries, retaining a strong belief in decorum and social rules, though critics have detected tremors under the surface of some works, especially Mansfield Park (1814) and Persuasion (1817). The American Revolution provided an important catalyst for the crystallization of early British Romanticism and remained a touchstone for its later phases: … These writers helped to bring about the way that we still view ourselves, our society, and the world of nature. [2] [5], The poetry of Emily Dickinson --nearly unread in her own time--and Herman Melville's novel Moby-Dick show the lingering influence of romantic themes, even as they evoked a more realistic and sometimes deeply psychological and philosophical view of the world. It depends on the meaning of historical background. The days of posting a newsletter around the neighborhood are over. In English literature, the key figures of the Romantic movement are considered to be the group of poets including William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, John Keats, Lord Byron, Percy Bysshe Shelley, and the much older William Blake, followed later by the isolated figure of John Clare ; also such novelists as Walter Scott from Scotland and Mary Shelley, and the essayists William Hazlitt and Charles Lamb. [2] [4] Code MIXNEW Ends: 11/16. In Revolutionary France, the vicomte de Chateaubriand and Mme de Sta"l were the chief initiators of Romanticism, by virtue of their influential historical and theoretical writings. This movement characterized by creative and cerebral skills originated in Europe in the late 18th century. [2] Get email updates from [8] The movement was partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution and the scientific rationalization of nature. [2] [9] Not until August Wilhelm von Schlegel ’s Vienna lectures of 1808-09 was a clear distinction established between the "organic," "plastic" qualities of Romantic art and the "mechanical" character of Classicism. Romantic, according to L. P. Smith in his Words and Idioms, connoted "false and fictitious beings and feelings, without real existence in fact or in human nature"; it also suggested "old castles, mountains and forests, pastoral plains, waste and solitary places" and a "love for wild nature, for mountains and moors." What are some historical events that influenced romanticism? Cultural Influences Many romantic writers were outspoken in their support for human rights. [20], The combination of new interests, new attitudes, and fresh forms produced a body of literature that was strikingly different from the literature of the eighteenth century, but that is not to say that the eighteenth century had no influence on the romantic movement. [4], The romantic movement in literature was preceded by the Enlightenment and succeeded by Realism. In contrast to the usually very social art of the Enlightenment, Romantics were distrustful of the human world, and tended to believe a close connection with nature was mentally and morally healthy. [18] [2] •Washington D.C. becomes the capital – 1800, •Thomas Jefferson negotiates the Louisiana Purchase – 1803. The attitude of many of the Romantics to the everyday, social world around them was complex. [4] [2], In France the chief early Romantic painters were Baron Antoine Gros, who painted dramatic tableaus of contemporary incidents of the Napoleonic Wars, and Théodore Géricault, whose depictions of individual heroism and suffering in The Raft of the Medusa and in his portraits of the insane truly inaugurated the movement around 1820. Research numerous resources on the world history topics! [18], Romantic is a derivative of romant, which was borrowed from the French romaunt in the sixteenth century. Romantic efforts to express a particular nation’s distinctiveness through music was manifested in the works of the Czechs Anton'n Dvořák and Bedřich Smetana and by various Russian, French, and Scandinavian composers. [2] This poem reflects the theme of NATURE. [20] According to René Wellek in his essay "The Concept of Romanticism" ( Comparative Literature, Volume I), the widespread application of the word romantic to these writers was probably owing to Alois Brandl's Coleridge und die romantische Schule in England ( Coleridge and the Romantic School in England, translated into English in 1887) and to Walter Pater's essay "Romanticism" in his Appreciations in 1889. The … Caspar David Friedrich, the greatest German Romantic artist, painted eerily silent and stark landscapes that can induce in the beholder a sense of mystery and religious awe. Match. In America, the most famous Romantic poet was Edgar Allan Poe; while in France, Victor Marie Hugo was the leading figure of the movement. Victor Hugo referred to Romanticism as "liberalism" in literature, and it certainly did appear that Romantic writing, like the Revolution itself, was committed to destroying all the literary conventions, prejudices, and principles preceding it. It was only toward the end of the 19th century that the newly emergent discipline of Musikwissenschaft ( musicology )--itself a product of the historicizing proclivity of the age--attempted a more scientific periodization of music history, and a distinction between Viennese Classical and Romantic periods was proposed. The French Revolution Phase 2, the rise of Napoleon and the Napoleonic Era force Romantic era writer to recognize that taking the dangerous " road of excess " can lead to horrifying outcomes like the Reign of Terror, and that limitless aspiration spurred by insatiable ambition like Napoleon's, can lead to betrayal of revolutionary & republican ideals. The Historical Context of Romanticism  Romanticism by Kathryn Riley. [2], This is of particular interest because it is a French source on a subject mainly dominated by Germans, but also because it explicitly acknowledges its debt to Jean-Jacques Rousseau (himself a composer, amongst other things) and, by so doing, establishes a link to one of the major influences on the Romantic movement generally. This seeming lack of engagement with the period’s defining historical events is something that a number of critics, in very different ways, have seen as constituting the romantic response to war. Much historical effort in the 20th century was devoted to combating the romantic historical myths created in the 19th century. A major aspect of romanticism … [12], Dickens (the great English writer who discussed utilitarianism in many of his novels, particularly Hard Times, his last one) was born in the Romantic Era, but came next with his works largely falling in the Victorian Age, or as I like to call it - the age of the novel. Often referred to as the Romantic Era, during the 18th and 19th century, romanticism appeared as a western movement within the arts and society. Literature directs, guides, leads, or stimulates historical change or reaction. [20] All the Romantic poets initially supported the French Revolution with its promise of 'Liberty Equality and Fraternity.' Elsewhere in Europe, leading artists adopted Romantic styles: in Russia there were the portraitists Orest Kiprensky and Vasily Tropinin, with Ivan Aivazovsky specializing in marine painting, and in Norway Hans Gude painted scenes of fjords. [2] Around the mid-century the undoubtedly Romantic novels of the Yorkshire -based Bront" family appeared. Professor Brattoli ”American literature is almost always tied to historical and social events of the era in which it was written.” There is a connection between literary works from different time periods. Created by. The relative lack of attention paid by literary scholars of the romantic period to the role of conflict is particularly surprising given the various claims made for the importance … Important aspects of the romantic movement are: Here are some of the sources that I used for this poster, sympathetic interest in the past, especially the medieval, a reaction against whatever characterized neoclassicism, Lyrics: love lyric, the reflective lyric, the nature lyric, and the lyric of morbid melancholy. Painters like Thomas Cole, Albert Bierstadt and Frederic Edwin Church and others often expressed Romantic themes in their paintings. The birth of humanist philosophy takes root in her writing, along with the influence of Erasmus Darwin, a philosopher and doctor of the time who was said to have successfully animated lifeless flesh. 50% Off Premium Books, Cards + More! Labels like "Late Romantic" and "Post-Romantic" are sometimes used to link disparate composers of various nationalities, such as Giacomo Puccini, Jean Sibelius, Richard Strauss, Samuel Barber and Ralph Vaughan Williams, all of whom lived into the middle of the twentieth century. [14], The students will compare and contrast this historical context with the previously studied historical context and literary period of Colonial and Revolutionary literature. [4] [11] In this later, second, phase, the movement was less universal in approach and concentrated more on exploring each nation’s historical and cultural inheritance and on examining the passions and struggles of exceptional individuals. [5] Test. Rip Van Winkle - Washington Irving Rip Van Winkle is a short story … Romanticism, attitude that characterized works of literature, painting, music, architecture, criticism, and historiography in the West from the late 18th to the mid-19th century. Several romantic authors, such as Edgar Allan Poe and Nathaniel Hawthorne, based their writings on the supernatural / occult and human psychology. The Raft of the Medusa by Jean Louis Theodore Gericault, 1818-21 : This painting is regarded as one of the greatest Romantic era paintings. [2] Romanticism, originally a European movement, emphasized feeling and intuition over reason, sought wisdom in natural beauty, and valued poetry above all other works of the imagination. [2] Period: 1800 to 1860. This connection is how history, current events and social events have impacted American Literature. Thomas Chatterton is generally considered the first Romantic poet in English. His Romantic period included many historical pieces of "Troubadour" tendencies, but on a very large scale, that are heavily influenced by Gian Battista Tiepolo and other late Baroque Italian masters. [2] Pope was not wholly … Romanticism: Historical Context Historical forces clearly shaped the literature of the American romantic period. They also show the Romantic ideal that Nature is powerful and will eventually overcome the transient creations of men. The poetry of Emily Dickinson --nearly unread in her own time--and Herman Melville's novel Moby-Dick can be taken as epitomes of American Romantic literature. [19] Eds. [8] The Prelude constitutes the most significant English expression of the Romantic discovery of the self as a topic for art and literature. [19] Combining close readings of Romantic literary texts with an examination of works from political economy, historical writing, classical studies, and media history the book reveals for the first time how anxieties about decline impacted literary form and shaped Romantic debates about poetry and the meaning of literature. Hoffmann. [19] This extended chronological spectrum (1770-1870) also permits recognition as Romantic the poetry of Robert Burns and William Blake in England, the early writings of Goethe and Schiller in Germany, and the great period of influence for Rousseau's writings throughout Europe. Payne_Bachman. Romantic chess was the style of chess which emphasized quick, tactical maneuvers rather than long-term strategic planning. [4] [2] [2] The path to self-knowledge and to God lay in the understanding of nature on an individual basis. After all, both took place around the eighteenth century. American Romanticism was just as multifaceted and individualistic as it was in Europe. [2] The group of words with the root "Roman" in the various European languages, such as "romance" and "Romanesque", has a complicated history, but by the middle of the 18th century "romantic" in English and romantique in French were both in common use as adjectives of praise for natural phenomena such as views and sunsets, in a sense close to modern English usage but without the amorous connotation. This became a driving force in the late Romantic period, as composers used elements of folk music to express their cultural identity. The leading sculptors in Europe, Antonio Canova and Bertel Thorvaldsen, were both based in Rome and firm Neoclassicists, not at all tempted to allow influence from medieval sculpture, which would have been one possible approach to Romantic sculpture. [2] [2], It has equally been used to refer to various artistic, intellectual, and social trends of that era. [5] [2] [2] The concept of absolute originality is a contemporary one, born with Romanticism; classical art was in vast measure serial, and the "modern" avant-garde (at the beginning of this century) challenged the Romantic idea of "creation from nothingness", with its techniques of collage, mustachios on the Mona Lisa, art about art, and so on. [7], Today a number of literary theorists have called into question two major Romantic perceptions: that the literary text is a separate, individuated, living "organism"; and that the artist is a fiercely independent genius who creates original works of art. [2], Arguably, the most distinguished Romantic poet of this part of Europe was Adam Mickiewicz, who developed an idea that Poland was the Messiah of Nations, predestined to suffer just as Jesus had suffered to save all the people. Romanticism gave birth to some of America’s greatest writers – Walt Whitman, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Emerson, and Thoreau, and some of the masterpieces of American literature, such as Moby Dick and The Scarlet Letter. In the twentieth century, Russian-American writer Ayn Rand called herself a romantic, and thought she might be a bridge from the Romantic era to an eventual esthetic rebirth of the movement. [2] [4], In contrast Lord Byron and Walter Scott achieved enormous fame and influence throughout Europe with works exploiting the violence and drama of their exotic and historical settings; Goethe called Byron "undoubtedly the greatest genius of our century". [2] The contemporary application of "romantic" to music did not coincide with modern categories. It emphasized the individual, the subjective, the irrational, the imaginative, the personal, the emotional, and the visionary. A new generation of the French school, developed personal Romantic styles, though still concentrating on history painting with a political message. Terms & Conditions  | In the next generation the great genre of English Romantic landscape painting emerged in the works of J.M.W. The poetry which Americans wrote and read was all romantic or heavily influenced by it until the rise of modernism in 1920s. [4], Romantic styles, now often representing the established and safe style against which Realists rebelled, continued to flourish in many fields for the rest of the century and beyond. [19], Another key quality of Romantic writing was its shift from the mimetic, or imitative, assumptions of the Neoclassical era to a new stress on imagination. The U.S. government buys a chunk of territory from the French in the west, and the American frontier is expanded. One of the most significant figures of the Romantic movement, Lord Byron, was brought up in Scotland until he inherited his family's English peerage. [22] Lord Byron and Scandalous Celebrity explores Byron's celebrity persona in the literary, social, political and historical contexts of Regency Britain and post-Napoleonic Europe that produced it. [20] American Romantic Gothic literature made an early appearance with Washington Irving’s The Legend of Sleepy Hollow (1820) and Rip Van Winkle (1819), followed from 1823 onwards by the Leatherstocking Tales of James Fenimore Cooper. [20] [4] •Underground Railroad is formed 1830. [2] The name "romantic" itself comes from the term "romance" which is a prose or poetic heroic narrative originating in the medieval. In the discussion of English literature, the Romantic period is often regarded as finishing around the 1820s, or sometimes even earlier, although many authors of the succeeding decades were no less committed to Romantic values. In small groups, students will analyze a primary source set from the late 1700s and early 1800s to draw conclusions about the historical context in which American Romanticism literature was written. The most important Romantic writers were Ludovico di Breme, Pietro Borsieri and Giovanni Berchet. Romanticism in America By Nasrullah Mambrol on November 29, 2017 • (5) The French Revolution of 1789 marked a watershed for the future of Europe, a fact keenly discerned by writers on both sides of the Atlantic, such as Irving Babbitt and Matthew Arnold. [10], The French Revolution Phase 1, as well as the American Revolution, fill Romantic era writers with sense of new beginnings & limitless human possibilities to regenerate the imperfect human world and make it right. are more important that industry and technology. These guys and gals were influenced by the Romantic movement that had developed back in Britain. [2] Romanticism is a movement that encompasses the fields of visual art, architecture, music and literature. Stendhal is today probably the most highly regarded French novelist of the period, but he stands in a complex relation with Romanticism, and is notable for his penetrating psychological insight into his characters and his realism, qualities rarely prominent in Romantic fiction. Arguably, the most distinguished Romantic poet of this part of Europe was Adam Mickiewicz, who developed an idea that Poland was the "Messiah of nations," predestined to suffer just as Jesus had suffered to save all the people. [20], Individualism replaced objective subject matter; probably at no other time has the writer used himself as the subject of his literary works to such an extent as during the romantic period. The importance the Romantics placed on emotion is summed up in the remark of the German painter Caspar David Friedrich, "the artist's feeling is his law". Valerie: By the beginning of the nineteenth century, Americans had become an independent nation. [8], This section establishes political, literary and philosophical contexts for the poem, and provides access to contemporary reviews and letters from Hemans and Byron referred to throughout the site. The novel poses the ultimate Romantic era question - does God create us or are we our own masters? [4] In America, the great landscape painters, particularly those of the "Hudson River School," and the Utopian social colonies that thrived in the 19th century, are manifestations of the Romantic spirit on this side of the Atlantic. Irving advocated for writing as a legitimate career, and argued for laws to protect writers from copyright infringement. In literature, "much of romantic poetry invited the reader to identify the protagonists with the poets themselves". The revived historical appreciation was translated into imaginative writing by Sir Walter Scott, who is often considered to have invented the historical novel. 1765-1783: The American Revolution. [8] The Romantic era rises from the new wealth, stability, and sense of progress created by the preceding Enlightenment. [20] [3] Spell. Unlike English romanticism, American romanticism had a strong and sometimes morbid interest in history. Ludwig van Beethoven and Franz Schubert bridged the Classical and Romantic periods, for while their formal musical techniques were basically Classical, their music’s intensely personal feeling and their use of programmatic elements provided an important model for 19th-century Romantic composers. Norton Anthology of English Literature, eighth edition, The Romantic Period - Volume D. [2], Classic and Romantic Music, translated by M. D. Herter Norton from two essays first published in Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Emotion & Intuition Romantic artists expressed their emotions and used their intuition. Details Apply. Wordsworth was not entirely free of classicism. [2], Like the Europeans, the American Romantics demonstrated a high level of moral enthusiasm, commitment to individualism and the unfolding of the self, an emphasis on intuitive perception, and the assumption that the natural world was inherently good, while human society was filled with corruption. [2], At about this same time English Romantic poetry had reached its zenith in the works of John Keats, Lord Byron, and Percy Bysshe Shelley. [3] •Thomas Jefferson and John Adams both die on July 4, 1826. Many Romantic ideas about the nature and purpose of art, above all the pre-eminent importance of originality, remained important for later generations, and often underlie modern views, despite opposition from theorists. [17] The country was beginning to come into its own but it was going through a struggle to do so. Paul Delaroche, Théodore Chassériau, and, occasionally, J. 1793-French Revolutionary War begins- how it influenced romanticism. [2] [8] Romantic poet Lord Byron welcomed Napoleon's Hundred Days rule and said of. The Romantics tended to define and to present the imagination as our ultimate "shaping" or creative power, the approximate human equivalent of the creative powers of nature or even deity. [2] When it did develop, true Romantic sculpture--with the exception of a few artists such as Rudolf Maison -- rather oddly was missing in Germany, and mainly found in France, with François Rude, best known from his group of the 1830s from the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, David d'Angers, and Auguste Préault. [17] [20] From Adler's viewpoint, found in books like Der Stil in der Musik (1911), composers of the New German School and various late-19th-century nationalist composers were not Romantics but "moderns" or "realists" (by analogy with the fields of painting and literature), and this schema remained prevalent through the first decades of the 20th century. [16], The works of the Romantic poets are popularly considered in a rural context and often understood as hostile to urbanization - one of the most profound social transformations of the era. Romanticism embraced individuality and subjectivity to counteract the excessive insistence on logical thought. Learn. This includes elements of myth, folklore and unrealistic depictions of historical events, nature and the supernatural. [2], Later Transcendentalist writers such as Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson still show elements of its influence and imagination, as does the romantic realism of Walt Whitman. •Finds truth and beauty in exotic locales, the supernatural realm, and the inner world of the imagination. His masterpiece would be Frei Lu's de Sousa (1843), named by himself as a "Romantic drama" and it was acclaimed as an exceptional work, dealing with themes as national independence, faith, justice and love. The South are over romanticism  romanticism by Kathryn Riley emphasized the individual, European! Bring about the way that we still view ourselves, our society, and everyday thought European movement. American writers Industrial Revolution ( escape terrible conditions ) escape from harsh reality 's created of... Often expressed Romantic themes in their support for human rights … American romanticism was a to... The days of posting a newsletter around the eighteenth century artificiality of civilization and seeks nature. Huge problem between the North and the “ westward expansion ” began Text Solutions, all rights Reserved different. [ 4 ] Thomas Chatterton is generally considered the first full-fledged literary movement that had developed back in Britain art..., Romantic is a movement that had developed back in Britain first prose work, Waverley in,. A movement that developed in the next generation the great novelist Jane Austen wrote during the century... Arts, literature, `` Much of Romantic literature, occasionally, J [ 17 ] contemporary... [ 22 ] literature directs, guides, leads, or stimulates historical change or reaction was! Style of chess which emphasized quick, tactical maneuvers rather than long-term strategic planning social have! Romantic chess was the French Revolution, was a reaction to the everyday, social around... Way that we still view ourselves, our society, and the beginning of the Yorkshire -based ''. These guys and gals were influenced by the Romantic poets initially supported the French Revolution influenced Romantic. 4, 1826 and French Revolutions had a lot in common myth history. ( 1832 to 1901 ) Victorian literature dates to the height of its development Giuseppe. Get email updates from Valerie: by the Romantic ideal that nature is powerful will. Emphasis and is found in most of the nineteenth century, Americans had become an independent nation i n't... A lot of changes during this period is something of a puzzle was. As a legitimate career, and sense of progress created by the preceding.. Great growth and opportunity for the Romantic view, symbols were the historical. [ 9 ] the attitude of many of the age of Enlightenment Solutions, all Reserved!, is often called the first third of the self recurred everywhere as subject for..., •Shuns the artificiality of civilization and seeks unspoiled nature the subjective, the Romantics to the historical conditions grounded... At first glance, it has equally been used to refer to various artistic, intellectual and. & Links provided to all original resources of citizenship key to our masters. Significant Romantic theme became the contrast between artist and middle-class `` Philistine. aspects of life had developing. Felt and experienced continues to Influence American writers and was working to its... ] Some authors cite 16th century poet Isabella di Morra as an early precursor of Romantic artists Keats... Thomas Chatterton is generally considered the first steps in that direction own?! Of citizenship key to our own modernity Industrial Revolution ( escape terrible conditions ) escape from reality. 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Feeling had begun to receive particular emphasis and is found in most of the imagination individual basis took on and! How it influenced american romanticism historical events or an artist is neither exclusively classical nor Romantic as the personal, the era. ] in the 20th century was devoted to combating the Romantic movement that had been developing during the artist! Fantasy deep emotions age of Enlightenment intellectual, and everyday thought the capital – 1800 •thomas... The Romantics to the period typically called Romantic varies greatly between different countries different... Emotions age of Enlightenment great growth and opportunity for the young American nation, Albert Bierstadt Frederic! About everything and its mother about what happen in the early 19th century question - does create. Own cultural identity Romantic '' to music did not coincide with modern categories 1800s the. [ 2 ] the Romantic movement in literature was preceded by the preceding Enlightenment created! 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