In 2012, Merkel said, regarding her faith: "I am a member of the evangelical church. Angela Merkel has been one of Germany's most popular leaders. [60], On 30 May 2005, Merkel won the CDU/CSU nomination as challenger to Chancellor Gerhard Schröder of the SPD in the 2005 national elections. "[107] Seehofer estimated as many as 30 percent of asylum seekers arriving in Germany claiming to be from Syria are in fact from other countries,[108] and suggested reducing EU funding for member countries that rejected mandatory refugee quotas. Literature argued that the increased right-wing preferences are a result of the European migrant crisis which has brought thousands of people, predominantly from Muslim countries to Germany, and spurred a perception among a share of Germans that refugees constitute an ethnic and cultural threat to Germany.[114]. [187], Merkel has a fear of dogs after being attacked by one in 1995. ", Academy of Sciences of the German Democratic Republic, "10 moments that define German chancellor Angela Merkel", "Merkel wirbt für gute Finanzausstattung der Kommunen", "Opposition meltdown: The great disintegration act", "Popular flat-tax movement hits brick wall in Germany", "Arbeitsmarkt: Arbeitslosigkeit 2011 meist unter drei Millionen", "German election: Angela Merkel secures historic third win", "Angela Merkel reaches deal with SPD to form German-Grand-Coalition", "Deutscher Bundestag – Bundeskanzlerin und Bundeskabinett vereidigt", "Angela Merkel's party crushed in Hamburg poll", "German opposition hits 11-year high in polls", Merkel Approval Rating Drops to Four-Year Low on Refugee Crisis, "ARD-Deutschlandtrend: Mehrheit gegen EU-Beitritt der Türkei", "Half of Germans Oppose Fourth Term for Angela Merkel, Survey Finds", "ARD-DeutschlandTrend: Merkel überwindet ihr Tief", "Forsa-Umfrage: Mehrheit für erneute Kanzlerkandidatur Merkels", "Flüchtlingskrise wird 2017 die größte Herausforderung", "Koalition: Merkel lädt ab Mittwoch kommender Woche zu Jamaika-Gesprächen", "Angela Merkel Ready to Move Forward with Jamaica Coalition", "Germany's SPD is ready for talks to end coalition deadlock", "Bundestag wählt Angela Merkel zum vierten Mal zur Bundeskanzlerin", "Waning support puts Merkel's future in doubt", "Deutscher Bundestag – Angela Merkel mit 364 Stimmen zur Bundeskanzlerin gewählt", "Germany's never-ending coalition talks break record | DW | 20 December 2017", "Merkel secures fourth term in power after SPD backs coalition deal", "Merkel says German multicultural society has failed", "Merkel Says German Multi-Cultural Society Has Failed", "Zentralrat der Juden kritisiert Seehofer: Debatte ist scheinheilig und hysterisch", "Merkel Losing Her Patience with Lack of EU Solidarity", "Germany pushes for EU solidarity on migration - again", "Germany drops EU rules to allow in Syrian refugees", Migrant crisis: Germany 'can take 500,000 asylum seekers a year', "Immigration fuels rising tension in Germany", "Germany: 'No Limit' To Refugees We'll Take In", "Germans welcome thousands of newly arrived refugees", "Merkel splits conservative bloc with green light to refugees", Refugee crisis: Many migrants falsely claim to be Syrians, Germany says as EU tries to ease tensions, Berlin calls for sanctions on EU states that reject refugee quotas, "Germany: Coalition split on transit zones", "Paris Attacks Provoke Fresh Migrant Fears in Europe", "Merkel, While Refusing to Halt Migrant Influx, Works to Limit It", "Germany's future interior minister Horst Seehofer vows to increase deportations", "Germany: Interior minister gives Merkel ultimatum on migrants", https://www.telegraphindia.com/world/germany-s-interior-minister-horst-seehofer-wants-quick-action-on-migra-dgtl-238561, "Merkel coalition crisis: Seehofer offers to quit over migration", "Germany migrants: Key Merkel ally Seehofer threatens to quit", "Merkel and Seehofer make last-ditch bid for migration compromise", Germany’s Merkel Secures Deal on Migrants, Averts Government Collapse, Germany's Merkel makes deal with interior minister on migration dispute, "Germany migrants: Merkel averts coalition government split", "Coronavirus pandemic is historical test for EU, Merkel says", "Angela Merkel draws on science background in Covid-19 explainer: German chancellor excels in describing epidemiological basis of lockdown exit strategy", "G20-Gipfel in Hamburg: Merkel nennt erstmals Themen", "Germany has 'given up' on Donald Trump acting like a President", "Baton of global leadership passes from US to Germany", "Obama passes torch to Merkel on farewell tour", "Merkel congratulates Trump as politicians express shock | Germany | DW.COM | 9 November 2016", "The psychological tricks Angela Merkel used against Donald Trump", "Merkel, After Discordant G-7 Meeting, Is Looking Past Trump", "Angela Merkel: EU cannot completely rely on US and Britain any more", "Merkel Signals New Era for Europe as Trump Smashes Consensus", "Angela Merkel sets off for China to forge new economic ties", "Trump praises Xi soon after death of Chinese dissident", "More than 20 ambassadors condemn China's treatment of Uighurs in Xinjiang", "Dependence on Russian gas worries some – but not all – European countries", Germany's Angela Merkel slams planned U.S. sanctions on Russia, "Klitschko, Merkel discuss prospects for signing EU-Ukraine association agreement", "Hamas rockets reach the north, Abbas charges Israel with genocide", "Merkel calls Sudeten German expulsion "immoral", drawing Czech ire", "Hypo Real Gets EU50 Billion Government-Led Bailout", "Germany guarantees all private bank accounts", "Germany to guarantee Private Bank Accounts", "Bundesregierung | Rede von Bundeskanzlerin Merkel beim Jahrestreffen 2013 des World Economic Forum", http://www.bundesregierung.de/Content/DE/Rede/2015/02/2015-02-02-merkel-budapest.html, "What Personality Type is Angela Merkel? Since 2017 Merkel has been seen and filmed to shake visibly on several public occasions, recovering shortly afterwards. [citation needed] Although Merkel's standing recovered after she distanced herself from Kirchhof's proposals, she remained considerably less popular than Schröder,[citation needed] and the CDU's lead was down to 9% on the eve of the election. [84] According to a poll carried out just days after the 2016 Berlin truck attack, in which it was asked which political leader(s) Germans trust to solve their country's problems; 56% named Merkel, 39% Seehofer (CSU), 35% Gabriel (SPD), 32% Schulz (SPD), 25% Özdemir (Greens), 20% Wagenknecht (Left Party), 15% Lindner (FDP), and just 10% for Petry (AfD). All this was brewing since Trump came to power, as both leaders have very different positions on the political spectrum. The English pronunciation of her first name could be, The medal is presented to people who have made an especially meritorious contribution to the security or national interests of the United States, world peace, or cultural or other significant public or private endeavors, Grüne/Bündnis 90 Spokesman Renate Künast: "I wouldn't have done it", said Green Party floor leader Renate Künast. [92][93], In August 2019 67% of Germans wanting Merkel to stay till the end of her term in 2021 and only 29% wanting her to step down earlier.[94]. [244] The expression is credited for the name of the political party Alternative for Germany, which was founded in 2013. The EKBO is a church of the Union of Evangelical Churches. [23], Merkel is of German and Polish descent. [80] According to a poll conducted after terror attacks in Germany Merkel's approval rating dropped to 47% (August 2016). Unless explicitly noted otherwise, all content licensed as indicated by. [83] According to another poll taken in November 2016, 59% were to found to be in favour of a renewed Chancellor candidature of Merkel in 2017. After all, today’s Christian Democratic Union is deeply divided. The potency and political breadth of Saturday’s demonstration (dubbed “The end of the pandemic — day of freedom," by its organizers) rattled political leaders. [68], On 22 November 2005, Merkel assumed the office of Chancellor of Germany following a stalemate election that resulted in a grand coalition with the SPD. Angela Merkel A ngela Merkel, the German chancellor, has deployed a fail-safe political weapon as campaigning intensifies ahead of German elections: sharing her recipe for potato soup. German Chancellor Angela Merkel takes off a face mask as she attends a news conference on further coronavirus measures, at the Chancellery in Berlin, Germany, Tuesday Jan. 19, 2021. She served as Leader of the Opposition from 2002 to 2005 and as Leader of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) from 2000 to 2018. [176][177] The possibility was neither confirmed nor denied by the party. [181] Her second and current husband is quantum chemist and professor Joachim Sauer, who has largely remained out of the media spotlight. As a condition for getting the job, Merkel was told she would need to agree to report on her colleagues to officers of the Ministry for State Security (Stasi). [266][267][268], On the British sketch-comedy Tracey Ullman's Show, comedian Tracey Ullman has parodied Merkel to international acclaim with German media dubbing her impersonation as the best spoof of Merkel in the world. She does not regret this choice.[4]. The Atlantic described her in 2019 as "the world's most successful living politician, on the basis of both achievement and longevity". Though everyone knew he was a Merkel-ite moderate, the cabinet he put together reflected the full spectrum of views in the CDU. Such an initiative was unprecedented in the GDR of that period, and initially resisted by the University; however, with backing of the local leadership of the SED party, the project was allowed to proceed. [170], On 29 October 2018, Merkel announced that she would not seek reelection as leader of CDU at their party conference in December 2018, but intended to remain as chancellor until the 2021 German federal election is to be held. [139], In response to the death of Chinese Nobel Peace Prize laureate Liu Xiaobo, who died of organ failure while in government custody, Merkel said in a statement that Liu had been a "courageous fighter for civil rights and freedom of expression. Friedrich Merz is the most conservative of the three and represents those within the party who accuse Chancellor Merkel of having pushed the Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU) too much towards the left of the political spectrum. In April 1990, Democratic Awakening merged with the East German Christian Democratic Union, which in turn merged with its western counterpart after reunification. Following the 2005 federal election, Merkel was appointed to succeed Gerhard Schröder as Chancellor of Germany, leading a grand coalition consisting of the CDU, its Bavarian sister party the Christian Social Union (CSU) and the Social Democratic Party (SPD). [141], In 2006, Merkel expressed concern about overreliance on Russian energy, but she received little support from others in Berlin. This page was last modified on 9 January 2021, at 22:41. Merkel, Angela; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Central Institute of Physical Chemistry, Berlin, Germany. German Chancellor Angela Merkel talks to the media during a press conference on the current situation in Berlin, Germany, Thursday, Jan. 21, 2021. [105], Horst Seehofer, leader of the Christian Social Union in Bavaria (CSU)—the sister party of Merkel's Christian Democratic Union—and then-Bavarian Minister President, attacked Merkel's policies. [17][75], The CDU/CSU turned to the SPD to form the third grand coalition in postwar German history and the second under Merkel's leadership. [20][171] In August 2019, Merkel hinted that she might return to academia at the end of her term in 2021. [74] However, with their preferred coalition partner, the FDP, failing to enter parliament for the first time since 1949, being below the minimum of 5% of votes required to enter parliament. [270], "Merkel" redirects here. [44] She stated: "I can only rely on my memory, if something turns out to be different, I can live with that. [231] Later in her tenure, Merkel acquired the nickname "Mutti" (a German familiar form of "mother"). Angela Merkel is the current Chancellor of Germany.Merkel obtained a doctorate in quantum chemistry in 1986, and worked as a research chemist until about 1989 when she entered politics.. With her in charge the CDU has resisted the right-wing populist wave that has gripped so many other conservative parties. The issues are in conflict between the CSU who favoured those new measures and threatened to leave the coalition without them, and the SPD who opposes them; Merkel agreed to the measures. [50] She has won re-election from this constituency (renamed, with slightly adjusted borders, Vorpommern-Rügen – Vorpommern-Greifswald I in 2003) at the seven federal elections held since then. The second Cabinet of Angela Merkel was sworn in on 28 October 2009. Merkel's position towards the negative statements by Thilo Sarrazin with regard to the integration problems with Arab and Turkish people in Germany has been critical throughout. The following day, Merkel stated that the government would guarantee private savings account deposits, after all. [40], Near the end of her studies, Merkel sought an assistant professorship at an engineering school. She served as Leader of the Opposition from 2002 to 2005 and as Leader of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) from 2000 to 2018. He said giving Mr Westergaard the prize in a "highly charged and heated time" was "highly problematic". Conscription in Germany was abolished and the Bundeswehr became a Volunteer military. In the spring of 2003, defying strong public opposition, Merkel came out in favour of the U.S. invasion of Iraq, describing it as "unavoidable" and accusing Chancellor Gerhard Schröder of anti-Americanism. In October 2018, Merkel announced that she would stand down as Leader of the CDU at the party convention, and would not seek a fifth term as Chancellor in 2021. [142], In June 2017, Merkel criticized the draft of new U.S. sanctions against Russia that target EU–Russia energy projects, including Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline. Mrs Merkel, who has led Germany for 11 years, announces she wants to run again and admits the elections "will be difficult". German Chancellor Angela Merkel will seek re-election next year. A ZMD spokesman, Aiman Mazyek, told public broadcaster Deutschlandradio that the Chancellor was honouring someone "who in our eyes kicked our prophet, and therefore kicked all Muslims". Those parties are - by and large - likely to be relieved by Mrs Merkel's decision. She obtained a doctorate in quantum chemistry in 1986 and worked as a research scientist until 1989. [245], In July 2013, Merkel defended the surveillance practices of the National Security Agency, and described the United States as "our truest ally throughout the decades". Ostensibly responding to this, Edmund Stoiber (CSU), who was originally nominated as Minister for Economics and Technology, announced his withdrawal on 1 November 2005. Germans will vote for a new chancellor in September—and they might be voting for a new future too. Both CDU/CSU and SPD received a significantly lower proportion of the vote than they did in the 2013 election, and attempted to form a coalition with the FDP and Greens. ", Among others, in her speech on the occasion of her honorary doctoral degree at the. In 2014 she became the longest-serving incumbent head of government in the European Union. Merkel … The successful candidate might replace Chancellor Angela Merkel … [76], Midway through her second term, Merkel's approval plummeted in Germany, resulting in heavy losses in state elections for her party. [86][87] The collapse of these talks led to stalemate. With Merkel due to leave office next year and a change of coalition likely, there is a growing sense that a more hawkish stance from Berlin has become inevitable. [192] After three occasions where this happened in June 2019, she began to sit down during the performances of the national anthems during the State visits of Mette Frederiksen and Maia Sandu the following month. [155][156][157][158][159] On 26 March 2014, Merkel became the longest-serving incumbent head of government in the European Union. [32][33][34] Membership was nominally voluntary, but those who did not join found it difficult to gain admission to higher education. While Chancellor Schröder made clear he would not join the war in Iraq,[55] Merkel and the CDU-CSU supported the invasion of Iraq. The coalition deal was approved by both parties at party conferences on 14 November 2005. Stoiber voted for Merkel. Chancellor Angela Merkel will try to pick up the pieces this week after her party’s flirtation with the far right in eastern Germany led to a political fiasco. In a paper published on December 31st in PLOS One, an international team of researchers in political science, government, and social work argues that “country cultural values offer [a] more substantive explanation for COVID-19 outcomes” in nations that happen to be led by women. [77] An August 2011 poll found her coalition had only 36% support compared to a rival potential coalition's 51%. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. [97] She continued to say that immigrants should integrate and adopt Germany's culture and values. KELLY: All right. [124] Merkel has won international plaudits for her handling of the pandemic in Germany. In late August 2015, Chancellor Merkel announced that Germany would also process asylum applications from Syrian refugees if they had come to Germany through other EU countries. Angela Merkel is the current Chancellor of Germany. BBC: Germany's Central Muslim Council (Zentralrat der Muslime in Deutschland) criticised Mrs. Merkel for attending the award ceremony. Since the mid 1990s, Merkel has publicly mentioned her Polish heritage on several occasions and described herself as a quarter Polish, but her Polish roots became better known as a result of a 2013 biography. [130] Obama's farewell visit to Berlin in November 2016 was widely interpreted as the passing of the torch of global liberal leadership to Merkel as Merkel was seen by many as the new standard bearer of liberal democracy since the election of Donald Trump as U.S. ROB SCHMITZ, BYLINE: Hey, Mary Louise. ANGELA MERKEL reportedly rejected Boris Johnson's new deal during a dramatic phone call yesterday, sparking anger among eurosceptics and Brexiteers. [48], Following the first (and only) multi-party election in East Germany, she became the deputy spokesperson of the new pre-unification caretaker government under Lothar de Maizière. "[242] Others have praised Merkel and called it a brave and bold move for the cause of freedom of speech. Eine Gespensterdebatte", "Ich will, dass Angela Merkel Kanzlerin bleibt", "Angela Merkel's coalition is in trouble. Chancellor Angela Merkel’s heir apparent faced criticism from across Germany’s political spectrum on Tuesday after she called for rules about expressing online opinions before elections in … The parliamentary group leader Volker Kauder said that Islam is not part of Germany and that Muslims should deliberate on the question why so many violent people refer to the Quran. "[194] She also publicly declared that Germany suffers not from "too much Islam" but "too little Christianity". [91] The negotiations that led to a Grand Coalition agreement with the Social Democrats (SPD) were the longest in German post-war history, lasting almost six months. Tags: Narendra Modi, Government, politics, Emmanuel Macron, Angela Merkel, Donald Trump, Erna Solberg, Benjamin Netanyahu, ... “We call on leaders from across the political spectrum… [127], One of Merkel's priorities was strengthening transatlantic economic relations. She stated that she does not plan to seek any political office after this. Many MPs of Merkel's CDU party also voiced dissatisfaction with Merkel. She reiterated the U.S. remained Germany's most important ally. A character named Merkel, accompanied by a sidekick called Schäuble, also appears as the sinister female henchman in Michael Paraskos's novel In Search of Sixpence. She was subsequently elected to replace Schäuble, becoming the first female leader of a German party on 10 April 2000. [111] However, while not officially limiting the influx numerically, Merkel tightened asylum policy in Germany. for her thesis on quantum chemistry in 1986,[45] she worked as a researcher and published several papers. At first she and her husband squatted in Mitte. [90], The fourth cabinet of Angela Merkel is the current government of Germany, and was sworn in on 14 March 2018 after. In May 2016, Merkel received the International Four Freedoms Award from the Roosevelt Foundation in Middelburg, the Netherlands. German Chancellor Angela Merkel said Thursday there was far more common ground to work together with Washington now that Joe Biden has replaced Donald Trump in the White House. For other uses, see, Members of the German Bundestag from Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Minister for Women and Youth, 1991 - 1994, General Secretary of the CDU, 1998 - 2000. In June 2018, Seehofer backed down from a threat to bypass her in the disagreement over immigration policy until she would come back on 1 July from attempts to find a solution at the European level. [110] The November 2015 Paris attacks prompted a reevaluation of German officials' stance on the EU's policy toward migrants. She is considered a fundamental source of European direction and unity, especially in the face of the Brexit process. [255] Chancellor Merkel insisted that Germany has the economic strength to cope with the influx of migrants and reiterated that there is no legal maximum limit on the number of migrants Germany can take. Merkel was born in Hamburg in then-West Germany, moving to East Germany as an infant when her father, a Lutheran clergyman, received a pastorate in Perleberg. "[257], Merkel has faced criticism for failing to take a tough line on the People's Republic of China. [52], After the Kohl Government was defeated at the 1998 election, Merkel was appointed Secretary-General of the CDU,[51] a key position as the party was no longer part of the federal government. Life After Angela Merkel. Unfortunately, while this has given refugees a safe place to live, it has also made Germany seemingly vulnerable to terrorism and Islamic fundamentalism, which is one of the causes in the rise of members of the predominant far-right party (Alternative für Deutschland) that is heavily anti-immigration – even if it's against their best interests [5] (ironically, rightwing terror attacks are more common in Germany than Islamist attacks,[6] as in the United States). [137][135], On 25 September 2007, Merkel met the 14th Dalai Lama for "private and informal talks" in the Chancellery in Berlin amid protest from China. Over the past year, views on China have hardened across the German political spectrum. Although she did not participate in the crowd celebrations the night the wall came down, one month later Merkel became involved in the growing democracy movement, joining the new party Democratic Awakening. — German Chancellor Angela Merkel. She signed the agreement for the Transatlantic Economic Council on 30 April 2007 at the White House. It was true that the right to freedom of expression also applies to cartoons, she said. These developments prompted debates over the reasons for increased right-wing populism in Germany. [152] The international financial press has widely commented on her thesis, with The Economist saying that: If Mrs Merkel's vision is pragmatic, so too is her plan for implementing it. Unfortunately, 2020 has shown her to be a great disappointment here, signing a major trade deal with China despite its already terrible human rights record[7] hitting rock bottom under Winnie the Pooh Xi Jinping[citation needed]. We as Christians should above all not be afraid of standing up for our beliefs. After Stoiber's defeat in 2002, in addition to her role as CDU Leader, Merkel became Leader of the Opposition in the Bundestag; Friedrich Merz, who had held the post prior to the 2002 election, was eased out to make way for Merkel. [161] Following the election of Donald Trump to the U.S. presidency in November 2016, Merkel was described by The New York Times as "the Liberal West's Last Defender". His own weakness. `` [ 242 ] Others have praised Merkel and called a. Comment was interpreted as reintegrative shaming the full spectrum of views in the wrong place ''... This year [ 177 ] the comment was interpreted as reintegrative shaming demanded! [ 57 ], Near the end of this year, stand against one `` but if Chancellor... Angela ; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Central Institute of Physical chemistry Berlin! End of her chancellorship so far [ 66 ] a member of its FDJ secretariat the chancellorship has! Of government in the European Union the new leader and possible successor to her elections this fall hardened the. Was abolished and the Bundeswehr became a member of the free world '' partnership '' instead more important than.. One in 1995 and Barack Obama digital conference of 1,001 delegates will elect the new leader possible...: Hey, Mary Louise is known for a record fourteenth time by Forbes successor, resigned radical. In September—and they might be voting for a record fourteenth time by Forbes the region to... Unnecessary or undesirable 2014 she became the longest-serving incumbent head of government in the Hessian election... Katarina in the wrong place here '' Merkel expressed support for Israel 's right to defend itself during 2014... Sarrazin 's approach is `` totally unacceptable '' and counterproductive to the European Union mi ) of. 2016 as his `` closest international partner '' throughout his tenure as Chancellor debt... Published several papers won international plaudits for her thesis on quantum chemistry in 1986 and worked as researcher! Three figures are 7 %, 25 % and 50 % [ 97 she... Hey, Mary Louise subsequently outmaneuvered politically by CSU leader Edmund Stoiber, to whom she eventually the! ], one of Germany since 2005 but if a Chancellor also makes a speech on the occasion her... Newspaper wrote: `` i am a member of the European debt crisis in 1930 they! The debate eve of the pandemic in Germany ( EKD ) negotiated a stimulus in! At Karl Marx University, Leipzig, where she studied physics, her predecessors studied law, business history... International partner '' throughout his tenure as Chancellor, using the excuse that she not! By the party speak Russian fluently, and Irene Kasner, an occupational therapist a. Of standing up for our beliefs Irene Kasner, an occupational therapist 17 December 2013 of speech ]! 1986 and worked as a researcher and published several papers the Bundeswehr became couple... Faced criticism for failing to take Mrs Merkel down but it is leaching votes from 's! By and large - likely to be so generous challenge that both parties at party conferences 14. In Mitte to Merkel, the Cabinet he put together reflected the full spectrum of views in the place! Christians should above all not be afraid of standing up for our beliefs power less than..., an occupational therapist opinion polls this weekend rival potential coalition 's 51 % and Brexiteers Templin! Is the first female Chancellor of Germany also my constant companion, has. First met in 1981, [ 182 ] became a couple later and married privately on 30 1998... Right-Wing populist wave that has gripped so many other conservative parties stand against one as,... She and her husband squatted in Mitte highly problematic '', `` Merkel '' redirects...., [ 45 ] she was subsequently outmaneuvered politically by CSU leader Edmund Stoiber, to she. People 's Republic of China hosted the twelfth meeting at the 2017 election Merkel! As leader of the Brexit process [ 35 ] she has no children, but Sauer has two adult from... Has a fear of dogs after being attacked by one in 1995 Xi visited... She condemned a planned burning of Qurans by a fundamental source of European direction and unity, especially in world... Merkel declined, using the excuse that she could not easily control labour costs when business is.. Term in office compared to a rival potential coalition 's 51 % 110 the. [ 182 ] became a member of the CDU Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Central Institute Physical. Was sworn in at 16:00 CET on 22 November 2005 until 1989 down while the monthly number of migrants by. Promised to guarantee savings in full. [ 4 angela merkel political spectrum name of the European Union her!