Deconstruction is an approach to understanding the relationship between text and meaning.  Deconstruction generally tries to demonstrate that any text is not a discrete whole but contains several irreconcilable and contradictory meanings; that any text therefore has more than one interpretation; that the text itself links these interpretations inextricably; that the incompatibility of these interpretations is irreducible; and thus that an interpretative reading cannot go beyond a certain point. 2. [page needed] Like Nietzsche, Derrida suspects Plato of dissimulation in the service of a political project, namely the education, through critical reflections, of a class of citizens more strategically positioned to influence the polis. The Deconstruction of Phallogocentrism from Duel to Duo, Ellen Lupton on deconstruction in Graphic Design, Deconstruction of fashion; La moda en la posmodernidad, Derrida: Deconstrucción, différance y diseminación; una historia de parásitos, huellas y espectros, The Problem of Genesis in Husserl's Philosophy, Introduction to Husserl's The Origin of Geometry, Of an Apocalyptic Tone Recently Adopted in Philosophy, Ethics, Institutions, and the Right to Philosophy, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Deconstruction&oldid=997347234, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from October 2020, Wikipedia articles that are too technical from October 2020, Articles needing expert attention from October 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2013, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2020, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from November 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2007, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2012, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from October 2020, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from May 2013, Wikipedia external links cleanup from September 2016, Wikipedia spam cleanup from September 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, A desire to contribute to the re-evaluation of all Western values, a re-evaluation built on the 18th-century. Deconstruction: Theory and Practice (New Accents) (English Edition) 19,54€ 6: Deconstruction Sounds & Rings,90€ 7: A Hand for Holmboe - Deconstructions: 11,28€ 8: Various Artists - Deconstruction! Hence, meanings can be adequately understood only with reference to the specific contrasts and differences they display with other, related meanings. ":5 By this, Derrida means that all claims to know something necessarily involve an assertion of the metaphysical type that something is the case somewhere. ", An approach to understanding the relationship between text and meaning, Derrida, "Structure, Sign, and Play" (1966), as printed/translated by Macksey & Donato (1970), Gregor Campbell. As we said at the beginning, “deconstruction” is themost famous of Derrida’s terms. :3 Commentator Richard Beardsworth explains that: Derrida is careful to avoid this term [method] because it carries connotations of a procedural form of judgement. Instead, they inhabit philosophical oppositions[further explanation needed]—resisting and organizing them—without ever constituting a third term or leaving room for a solution in the form of a Hegelian dialectic (e.g., différance, archi-writing, pharmakon, supplement, hymen, gram, spacing). However, texts betray traces of their own instability, making the possibility of determinate meaning suspect. Richard Beardsworth, developing from Critchley's Ethics of Deconstruction, argues, in his 1996 Derrida and the Political, that deconstruction is an intrinsically political practice. Deconstruction - Deconstruction - Deconstruction in literary studies: Deconstruction’s reception was coloured by its intellectual predecessors, most notably structuralism and New Criticism. In his brief reply to Derrida, "Reiterating the Differences: A Reply to Derrida", Searle argued that Derrida's critique was unwarranted because it assumed that Austin's theory attempted to give a full account of language and meaning when its aim was much narrower. Derrida and PoliticsWhere deconstruction is brought to bear on politics Derrida's predominant move is the critique of the philosophical demand, exemplified by paul rekret Plato's Republic, for the polis to reflect the order of ideas. Learn more. see the research monograph, 2012, edited by Springer-Verlag Berkin Heidelberg. Derrida has been interested in one particular opposition: the opposition between writing and speech [voix]. While sympathetic to Austin's departure from a purely denotational account of language to one that includes "force", Derrida was sceptical of the framework of normativity employed by Austin. Twitter Facebook. As Ward says, “Deconstruction is a [literary] method of reading which effectively turns texts against themselves.” 1 For example, according to Derrida’s theory of deconstruction, the Bible is merely a book written by men who were locked in their own culture, experiences, and language. , Between the late 1960s and the early 1980s, many thinkers were influenced by deconstruction, including Paul de Man, Geoffrey Hartman, and J. Hillis Miller. Zima's study makes a strikingly original contribution to our better understanding of deconstruction and its various philosophic sources. Simon Critchley argues, in his 1992 book The Ethics of Deconstruction, that Derrida's deconstruction is an intrinsically ethical practice. Ironically, rhetoric becomes viewed with a certain degree of suspicion in this body of work, because rhetoric and figure grant legal writing and legal theory far more legitimacy than they deserve. Updates? Structuralism viewed language as a number of signs, composed of a signified (the meaning) and a signifier (the word itself). 1. a theory of textual analysis positing that a text has no stable reference and questioning assumptions about the ability of language to represent reality. The point of the deconstructive analysis is to restructure, or “displace,” the opposition, not simply to reverse it. Deconstruction, form of philosophical and literary analysis, derived mainly from work begun in the 1960s by the French philosopher Jacques Derrida, that questions the fundamental conceptual distinctions, or “oppositions,” in Western philosophy through a close examination of the language and logic of philosophical and literary texts. However, Derrida resisted attempts to label his work as "post-structuralist". , There is one statement by Derrida—in an essay on Rousseau in Of Grammatology—which has been of great interest to his opponents. Learn more. The popularity of the term deconstruction, combined with the technical difficulty of Derrida's primary material on deconstruction and his reluctance to elaborate his understanding of the term, has meant that many secondary sources have attempted to give a more straightforward explanation than Derrida himself ever attempted. It is a theory of literary criticism that questions traditional assumptions about certainty, identity, and truth; asserts that words can only refer to other words; and attempts to demonstrate how statements about any text subvert their own meanings. In order to understand Derrida's motivation, one must refer to Friedrich Nietzsche's philosophy.  Even the process of translation is also seen as transformative since it "modifies the original even as it modifies the translating language. In texts these binaries form the motif, or theme of a story. Derrida's deconstruction strategy is also used by postmodernists to locate meaning in a text rather than discover meaning due to the position that it has multiple readings. There have been problems defining deconstruction. As J. Hillis Miller, the preeminent American deconstructionist, has explained in an essay entitled Stevens' Rock and Criticism as Cure (1976), "Deconstruction is not a dismantling of the structure of a… Searle considered the omission of parasitic discourse forms to be justified by the narrow scope of Austin's inquiry. Sometimes under its own steam, but also in part owing to Derrida’s shifting interests, deconstruction became, and in part remains, a working approach in fields such as architecture, religious studies, law, feminist and political theory, as well as others. A re-valuation of certain classic western dialectics: poetry vs. philosophy, reason vs. revelation, structure vs. creativity, David B. Allison, an early translator of Derrida, states in the introduction to his translation of, Breckman, Warren, "Times of Theory: On Writing the History of French Theory,", This page was last edited on 31 December 2020, at 02:37. Although obviously a critical tool, it also lacks the sense, evident in Heidegger, that the text to be deconstructed is part of how European thought has somehow gone wrong and needs correction. Nevertheless, he eventually accepted that the term had come into common use to refer to his textual approach, and Derrida himself increasingly began to use the term in this more general way.  He subsequently presented his views in the article "How to Deconstruct Almost Anything", where he stated, "Contrary to the report given in the 'Hype List' column of issue #1 of Wired ('Po-Mo Gets Tek-No', page 87), we did not shout down the postmodernists. Steven Gormley: Deliberative Theory and Deconstruction - A Democratic Venture. "to show that things-texts, institutions, traditions, societies, beliefs, and practices of whatever size and sort you need - do not have definable meanings and determinable missions, that they are always more than any mission would impose, that they exceed the boundaries they currently occupy", "While in a sense it is impossibly difficult to define, the impossibility has less to do with the adoption of a position or the assertion of a choice on deconstruction's part than with the impossibility of every 'is' as such. Thus, to talk of a method in relation to deconstruction, especially regarding its ethico-political implications, would appear to go directly against the current of Derrida's philosophical adventure.. 20.10-Theories of Deconstruction, Post Modernism and Minimalism. :194 An example of genesis would be the sensory ideas from which knowledge is then derived in the empirical epistemology. Encyclopedia of contemporary literary theory: approaches, scholars, terms. This argument is largely based on the earlier work of Heidegger, who, in Being and Time, claimed that the theoretical attitude of pure presence is parasitical upon a more originary involvement with the world in concepts such as ready-to-hand and being-with. Consequently, some critics[who? For Derrida, it is not possible to escape the dogmatic baggage of the language we use in order to perform a pure critique in the Kantian sense. good/bad, love/hate, white/black, and male/female. Deconstruction emerged out of a tradition of French philosophical thought strongly influenced by the phenomenological projects of Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger.The main concern of phenomenology is consciousness and essence. Language is dogmatic because it is inescapably metaphysical. Différance is the observation that the meanings of words come from their synchrony with other words within the language and their diachrony between contemporary and historical definitions of a word. Derrida and Hillis Miller were subsequently affiliated with the University of California, Irvine. . The exchange was characterized by a degree of mutual hostility between the philosophers, each of whom accused the other of having misunderstood his basic points. ] have considered the exchange to be a series of elaborate misunderstandings rather than a debate, while others[who? Derrida was involved in a number of high-profile disagreements with prominent philosophers, including Michel Foucault, John Searle, Willard Van Orman Quine, Peter Kreeft, and Jürgen Habermas. Derrida states that deconstruction is an "antistructuralist gesture" because "[s]tructures were to be undone, decomposed, desedimented". Derrida's name is inextricably linked with the term 'deconstruction'.  Some critics[who? His way of achieving this was by conducting thorough, careful, sensitive, and yet transformational readings of philosophical and literary texts, with an ear to what in those texts runs counter to their apparent systematicity (structural unity) or intended sense (authorial genesis). And so Nietzsche decides to throw it in our faces, and uncover the truth of Plato, that he—unlike Orpheus—just happened to discover his true love in the light instead of in the dark. Derrida writes, Without a doubt, Aristotle thinks of time on the basis of ousia as parousia, on the basis of the now, the point, etc. The philosophy of deconstruction, which is derived from Derrida’s work, is clearly an influence on architects such as Eisenman and Tschumi. A thinker with a method has already decided how to proceed, is unable to give him or herself up to the matter of thought in hand, is a functionary of the criteria which structure his or her conceptual gestures. In effect, these texts describe speech as a form of writing, even in cases where writing is explicitly claimed to be secondary to speech. The mistranslation is often used to suggest Derrida believes that nothing exists but words. deconstruction definition: 1. the act of breaking something down into its separate parts in order to understand its meaning…. :29 Searle was particularly hostile to Derrida's deconstructionist framework and much later refused to let his response to Derrida be printed along with Derrida's papers in the 1988 collection Limited Inc. Searle did not consider Derrida's approach to be legitimate philosophy, or even intelligible writing, and argued that he did not want to legitimize the deconstructionist point of view by paying any attention to it. Ed. ), or has the upper hand": signified over signifier; intelligible over sensible; speech over writing; activity over passivity, etc.  This, in turn, caused Derrida to criticize Searle for not being sufficiently familiar with phenomenological perspectives on intentionality. In the early 1970s, Searle had a brief exchange with Jacques Derrida regarding speech-act theory. Christopher Norris, University of Wales at Cardiff. Online Workshop | Percy Pithawala. Deconstruction also inspired deconstructivism in architecture and remains important within art, music, and literary criticism.. He claims the humanities are subject to isolation and genetic drift due to their unaccountability to the world outside academia. 1991) to use deconstruction to show how rhetorical figures created ideological support for injustice. DECONSTRUCTION THEORY FACULTY OF ARTS AND SOCIAL SCIENCES POSTGRADUATE DEPARTMENT UNIT CODE: MTL 501 UNIT TITLE: CONTEMPORARY LITERARY THEORIES LECTURER: DR SIUNDU PRESENTED BY: ELLY MAKARI REGISTRATION NUMBER: MA/LIT/GC/004/14/15 A PAPER SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE AWARD OF MASTERS DEGREE IN ARTS AT THE … Arguing that law and politics cannot be separated, the founders of the "Critical Legal Studies Movement" found it necessary to criticize the absence of the recognition of this inseparability at the level of theory. The criticism of his former beliefs both mistaken andvalid aims towards uncovering a “firm and permanentfoundation.” The image of a foundati… [page needed]. , Chip Morningstar holds a view critical of deconstruction, believing it to be "epistemologically challenged". For Derrida, similarly, linguistic meaning is determined by the “play” of differences between words—a play that is “limitless,” “infinite,” and “indefinite”—and not by an original idea or intention existing prior to and outside language. He seems to have appropriated theterm from Heidegger’s use of “destruction” inBeing and Time. There is a focus on the deconstruction that denotes the tearing apart of a text to find arbitrary hierarchies and presuppositions for the purpose of tracing contradictions that shadow a text's coherence. Deconstruction can challenge a particular dogmatism and hence de-sediment dogmatism in general, but it cannot escape all dogmatism all at once. Derrida’s argument against this picture is an extension of an insight by the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure. Derrida's original use of the word "deconstruction" was a translation of Destruktion, a concept from the work of Martin Heidegger that Derrida sought to apply to textual reading. Whether we take the signified or the signifier, language has neither ideas nor sounds that existed before the linguistic system, but only conceptual and phonic differences that have issued from the system.  Commentators have frequently interpreted the exchange as a prominent example of a confrontation between analytic and continental philosophies. 1993. This group came to be known as the Yale school and was especially influential in literary criticism. Since the 1980s, these observations have inspired a range of theoretical enterprises in the humanities, including the disciplines of law,:3–76 anthropology, historiography, linguistics, sociolinguistics, psychoanalysis, LGBT studies, and feminism. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. 4 - 7:30 PM IST (GMT + 5:30) Registration ends: 30 November, 2020 For Indian Nationals : Rs 7,500/- For Others: $140/-All Registered students can avail Special Discounts by emailing [email protected]
As already noted, deconstruction differs from Destruktion in that it has no fixed or expected endpoint or map, but is rather a potentially infinite process. Lecture 10 - Deconstruction I Overview. The American philosopher Walter A. Davis, in Inwardness and Existence: Subjectivity in/and Hegel, Heidegger, Marx and Freud, argues that both deconstruction and structuralism are prematurely arrested moments of a dialectical movement that issues from Hegelian "unhappy consciousness". This explains why Derrida always proposes new terms in his deconstruction, not as a free play but from the necessity of analysis. Omissions? ). I will read destruction in various Heidegger texts and discuss Derrida's intervention through his critique of destruction in deconstruction. Derrida refers to this point as an "aporia" in the text; thus, deconstructive reading is termed "aporetic. Derrida argued that origin is as meaning, that is always unstable and multiple that is impossible to pin down in a certain frame. To demonstrate the indeterminacy of legal doctrine, these scholars often adopt a method, such as structuralism in linguistics, or deconstruction in Continental philosophy, to make explicit the deep structure of categories and tensions at work in legal texts and talk. 'Deconstruction' is somewhat less negative than the Heideggerian or Nietzschean terms 'destruction' or 'reversal'; it suggests that certain foundational concepts of metaphysics will never be entirely eliminated...There is no simple 'overcoming' of metaphysics or the language of metaphysics. Batch Size : 20. Defining Deconstruction contradicts its own nature according to Derrida's theory because definitions delimit concepts, while Deconstruction's goal is to break links between concepts (Benedikt, 1992). The difficulty in defining deconstruction The problems of definition. Jacques Derrida's theory of the sign fits into the poststructuralist movement, which runs counter to Saussurean structuralism (the legacy of linguist Ferdinand de Saussure). By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Derrida, in his response to Searle ("a b c ..." in Limited Inc), ridiculed Searle's positions. Simply put, deconstruction is the systematic disassembly (“unbuilding”) of a structure by hand in order to salvage the maximum economic and environmental value of materials through reuse and recycling.Similarly stated, it’s the process of taking a building apart in the reverse order of construction to skillfully remove valuable building materials and save rich architectural history. :3 In his deconstruction of Edmund Husserl, Derrida actually argues for the contamination of pure origins by the structures of language and temporality. One of the two terms governs the other (axiologically, logically, etc. Please select which sections you would like to print: While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Derrida's observations have greatly influenced literary criticism and post-structuralism. For me -the Deconstruction – is a very efficcious tool – necessary – in modeling theory of the Fluid Dynamics and in particular the system of Navier-Stokes and Fourier equations. One pole (presence, good, truth, man, etc.) At the same time, deconstruction is also a "structuralist gesture" because it is concerned with the structure of texts. Deconstruction is a literary theory and philosophy of language derived principally from Jacques Derrida 's 1967 work Of Grammatology. "John R. Searle" in Irene Rima Makaryk (ed). As nouns the difference between deconstruction and structuralism is that deconstruction is a philosophical theory of textual criticism; a form of critical analysis while structuralism is a theory of sociology that views elements of society as part of a cohesive, self-supporting structure. He simply declares that there is nothing outside of texts..." Searle's reference here is not to anything forwarded in the debate, but to a mistranslation of the phrase "il n'y a pas dehors du texte," ("There is no outside-text") which appears in Derrida's Of Grammatology.:158–159. Derrida's critical approach to deconstruction shows us that dualisms are never equivalent; they are always hierarchically ranked. :26, Further, Derrida contends that "in a classical philosophical opposition we are not dealing with the peaceful coexistence of a vis-a-vis, but rather with a violent hierarchy. Deconstruction: Theory and Practice has been acclaimed as by far the most readable, concise and authoritative guide to this topic. Deconstruction and some analogue of its operation are, however, today not confined to just the fields of literature and philosophy. , Deconstructive readings of history and sources have changed the entire discipline of history. In this video, I take an introductory look at the philosophy of Jacques Derrida and Deconstruction. Self and other, private and public, subjective and objective, freedom and control are examples of such pairs demonstrating the influence of opposing concepts on the development of legal doctrines throughout history. :3 This is because the possibility of analysis is predicated on the possibility of breaking up the text being analysed into elemental component parts. One indication of this fact, according to Derrida, is that descriptions of speech in Western philosophy often rely on examples and metaphors related to writing. During the Second International Conference on Cyberspace (Santa Cruz, California, 1991), he reportedly heckled deconstructionists off the stage. As Derrida argues, however, spoken words function as linguistic signs only to the extent that they can be repeated in different contexts, in the absence of the speaker who originally utters them. The misunderstandings that deconstruction has engendered are partly due to the obscurity of In general, deconstruction is a philosophy of meaning, which deals with the ways that meaning is constructed by writers, texts, and readers. Derrida claimed that all of his essays were attempts to define what deconstruction is,:4 and that deconstruction is necessarily complicated and difficult to explain since it actively criticises the very language needed to explain it. If Derrida were to positively define deconstruction—as, for example, a critique—then this would make the concept of critique immune to itself being deconstructed. Derrida refers to this—in his view, mistaken—belief there is a self-sufficient, non-deferred meaning as metaphysics of presence. Nietzsche's point in Daybreak is that standing at the end of modern history, modern thinkers know too much to be deceived by the illusion of reason any more. In structuralism one sees commentaries on the structure from various seminal theorists trying to unveil what lies in, behind and around the structure, but Derrida deconstructs the fundamental assumption that these theorists make to unravel the unknown and his methodology would later become a significant critical theory called ‘deconstruction,’ that has influenced disciplines all around. This is the basis of différance. Deconstruction, like critical strategies based on Marxism, feminism, semiotics, and anthropology, focuses not on the themes and imagery of its objects but rather on the linguistic and institutional systems that frame the production of texts. This approach to text is influenced by the semiology of Ferdinand de Saussure.. Derrida's views on deconstruction stood in opposition to the theories of structuralists such as psychoanalytic theorist Jacques Lacan, and anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss. Deconstruction Theory By Nasrullah Mambrol on March 3, 2019 • ( 2). Barbara Johnson and Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak , for example, both translators of Derrida’s work, were instrumental in bringing Deconstruction into Feminism , Psychoanalysis , and the critique of gender … However, like Nietzsche, Derrida is not satisfied merely with such a political interpretation of Plato, because of the particular dilemma modern humans find themselves in. Deconstruction is a term in contemporary philosophy, literary criticism, and the social sciences, denoting a process by which the texts and languages of Western philosophy (in particular) appear to shift and complicate in meaning when read in light of the assumptions and absences they reveal within themselves. Deconstruction doesn't actually mean "demolition;" instead it means "breaking down" or analyzing something (especially the words in a work of fiction or nonfiction) to discover its true significance, which is supposedly almost never exactly what the author intended. In the writings of the French Enlightenment philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau, for example, society and culture are described as corrupting and oppressive forces that gradually develop out of an idyllic “state of nature” in which humans exist in self-sufficient and peaceful isolation from one another. , Miller has described deconstruction this way: "Deconstruction is not a dismantling of the structure of a text, but a demonstration that it has already dismantled itself. Deconstructionism is basically a theory of textual criticism or interpretation that denies there is any single correct meaning or interpretation of a passage or text. Deconstruction is usually known as a theory used in the study of literature or philosophy which says that a piece of writing does not have just one meaning and that the meaning depends on the reader. The idea or phonic substance that a sign contains is of less importance than the other signs that surround it. Martin Heidegger was perhaps the first to use the term (in contrast to Nietzschean demolition), although the form we recognize in English is an element in a series of translations (from Heidegger's Abbau and … deconstruction suffered the curious fate of being an antihumanist theory that nevertheless was often understood in the United States as making the radically subjectivist claim that texts mean whatever a person wants them to mean. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Marian Hobson. Deconstruction can be defined as a way of understanding how something was created, usually things like art, books, poems and other writing. 01 – 06 December, 2020. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. For Derrida, the most telling and pervasive opposition is the one that treats writing as secondary to or derivative of speech. Positive deconstruction, in relation to Christian apologetics, is a term first used by Nick Pollard in Evangelism Made Slightly Less Difficult (drawing on Dr. David Cook), to describe a methodology for engaging with worldviews in Christian apologetics. 1998. pp. :2 The structural problematic for Derrida is the tension between genesis, that which is "in the essential mode of creation or movement", and structure: "systems, or complexes, or static configurations". [page needed], Popular criticism of deconstruction intensified following the Sokal affair, which many people took as an indicator of the quality of deconstruction as a whole, despite the absence of Derrida from Sokal's follow-up book Impostures Intellectuelles. This term can be understood as a theory and method of reading and analytic inquiry that aims to … University of Toronto Press, 1993. Searle did not reply. PDF “The nature vs. nurture debate on whether biology or environment causes human beings to choose certain roles and lifestyles is a perennial controversy in sociobiology, but since the seventies the debate has been extended to whether nurture, i.e. This being merely one historical event amongst many, Nietzsche proposes that we revisualize the history of the West as the history of a series of political moves, that is, a manifestation of the will to power, that at bottom have no greater or lesser claim to truth in any noumenal (absolute) sense. They will eventually develop their theory of deconstruction and interpret it completely different to one and each other.  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